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Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world , and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity individual or corporate has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc.

Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. Now 24 kings, at 11 years each, give but years instead of Kenneth's reign also extended more than a dozen of years beyond , so that 34 kings seem necessary, upon general chronologic principles, to fill the space of time. This argument becomes so cogent as to be invincible, when we consider that by all accounts the clear and certain list, from Kenneth's accession to the Pikish throne, , till the death of Lulach , contains no less than eighteen kings in years.

Which is but between eleven and twelve years for each king. But from till , the confusion and inaccuracy of the Latin lists are self-apparent. Eochod 16 years. Began to reign 2. Kinat Keir 3 months 3. Fercar 16 years 4. Donal Brec 14 years 5. Malduin 16 years 6. Fercar Fada 21 years 7. Eochoid Rinneval 3 years 8. Armkelleth 1 year 9.

Edgan 13 years b Murdac 3 years Eogan 3 years Ed Fin 30 years Fergus 3 years Selvac 24 years Eochoid 30 years Dungal 7 years Alpin 3 years Kenneth Winton follows this series, as to names of kings; but omits often the years they reigned; and puts the years of Christ at his pleasure. Kennethus Keir 3 months 2.

Eugenius III. Ferquardus I. Donaldus III. Ferquardus II. Malduinus 20 years 7. Eugenius IV.

Celtic Scotland: a history of ancient Alban – Old Books 3 Vol PDF on 1 DVD

Eugenius V. Amberkelethus 1 year Eugenius VI. Murdacus 15 years Etfinus 31 years Eugenius VII. Fergus II. Selvathius 21 years Achaius 32 years Convallus 5 years Dungalus 7 years Alpinus 3 years Kennethus Innes has sufficiently shewn the perversions, and interpolations, of the former part of this mock list; and this later part has also it's share. Tighernac also clearly marks the reign of Connad Keir to have followed that of Eochoid, as shall be afterward stated in his own words. Fercar II. Fada is also put before Malduin, in defiance of the old lists, both Irish and Scotish.

And a false Convallus is interpolated. But what purpose that ignorant dreamer had in view, by merely altering positions of kings, and putting the last first, is not so easily seen. The falsehood of Fordun's list is also clear from it's chronology. Amkellach was slain in , according to the Irish annals: Fordun puts Fordun dates him All he does is to alter and interpolate the old Latin lists, preserved in the Register of St. For the defects of the old Latin lists are so great as to stamp them with utter falsehood on the whole chronology in gross, as above shewn.

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Connad Keir died in the lists put Amkellach died the lists say Selvac began to reign the lists date Murdac began his reign the lists say And the well-known reign of Kenneth, who ascended the Pikish throne, is antedated by these old lists near thirty year! The Dalriadic series of kings of Argyle was so unimportant, that it is surprizing that any tolerable list is extant.

In fact, the whole series stands upon one poem, which is now printed in the Appendix, from a transcript remitted to me by Mr.

This poem bears in its conclusion that it was written in the time of Malcom III. It is beyond question the most antient monument of Dalriadic history extant; and has been long since quoted as such by Colgan, Ward, and others. The beginning of this celebrated Duan, or short poem, is, A eolcha Alban uile, A shluagh feta foltbhuidle, Cia ceud ghabhail aneol duibh, Ro ghabhsadar Alban bruigh. He then proceeds to the Cruthni, or Piks; and states, in conformity with the Irish annals, that seventy kings reigned in Pikland before Constantine.

Next he puts the colony of Riada, descended from Conary, king of Ireland; and says, that 'in later time,' the three sons of Erc, Loarn, Fergus, and Angus, came over. This Duan, besides its historical merit, is also valuable for its curiosity, as an ancient specimen of those metrical lists of kings, which supplied the place of history in illiterate countries, as explained in treating of the Pikish lists. But this Duan is more valuable from it's being older by two centuries; and that Latin piece is evidently on the model of those used in the vulgar idiom, before Latin was in such general use.

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Both the Latin lists and Irish Annals, however, concur to certify this Duan; and lend it every degree of historic faith. There is, however, a circumstance relating to this old poem, with which it is proper that the reader should be acquainted. Thus to Kenneth III. Nor can there be a doubt that it is totally erroneous thro-out this part.

But it is certain that the years in the first part often disagree with those of Tighernac; and seem fully as uncertain as those of the last. The best plan of course appeared to be, to follow the bard in names and order; but to check his numbers from our old lists; the Irish Annals; and arguments from the nature of the subject. It will not indeed be surprizing if the reader should find the list of Dalriadic kings, which has cost the author more labour than any part of this work, the most unsatisfactory part of it.

That the old Latin lists are so deficient in general chronology, that they want near thirty years of the period, which they pretend to reach at the commencement of Kenneth's reign in Pikland. That the old Latin lists are also quite deficient in particular chronology, as is clear from dates preserved in the authentic Irish Annals, which are right as to the kings of Pikland, and the English Heptarchy, and cannot be supposed wrong as to those of Dalriada alone; about whom, on the contrary, their intelligence must have been best.

That the Duan is more ancient by two centuries than any Latin list preserved, and in this respect alone would, by every rule of history, deserve superior faith. The antiquity of the Duan admits of no doubt, being judged of by the very same rule followed concerning the Latin lists, namely, that it was written under the king with whom it ends, and the length of whose reign it therefore says was only known to heaven.

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Let us, therefore, proceed to digest the genuine series of Dalriadic kings from that Duan. His Dalriadic series is in fact the best part of his work, for here he was a spectator, and not a party. Si sic omnia! But i shall beg leave to differ from him in many points; and as his authorities, namely, the Gaelic Duan, with a literal translation, and extracts from the translation of the Annals of Ulster in the Musaeum, are now on my table, i hope i shall not be blamed for using my own eyes and thoughts.

The years are right allowing one year, as Ware does, for the difference in beginning the year , but foreign actions are often referred to wrong years, tho sometimes also right. Loarn, Fergus, sons of Erc, reigned together, as Loarn, Fergus, above explained. This reign began in The Duan says Loarn reigned 10 years. But had he reigned so long, it is unaccountable that his name should have been omitted in our lists. Both he and Fergus were very old, when they came to Dalriada; and Tighernac speaks of Fergus as dying after a short reign.

Loarn's reign could hardly exceed one year. Pompa Bebona, as O'Flaherty quaintly latinizes some Irish name, another daughter of Loarn, was also a mother of three saints! Fergus I. Mor does not only imply Great; but often tall, or fat; or, by irony, little.

Domangard, son of Fergus, A. Congal, son of Domangard, A. Fordun puts twenty-two. The Annals of Ulster 34; as has the Chronicon Rythmicum: and their authority is here followed. Gabran, son of Domangard, A. The Annals of Ulster date Congal's death, Gabran's, ; and so assign him 16 years. Conal I.

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The Annals of Ulster and Tighernac say, that he gave Hyona to Columba but Beda, a far more ancient and better informed writer, says, that the Piks gave that ile to Columba, as above explained. Aidan, son of Gabran, A. The Annals of Ulster, Fordun, and the chronology of the old lists, fix his death at , and if so, he reigned just thirty years.

O'Flaherty tacitly puts his reign from , till , or thirty-two years. We know from Beda's express date that Aidan was defeated by Edilfrid in Duncath, son of Conal, seems to have contested the kingdom; and the battle of Loro, above specified, appears to have decided the contest in Aidan's favour, A. One of the old lists also makes Aidan's reign to be of twenty-four years, while two others give thirty-four.

The Duan calls him Aidan of the extended territories, and he certainly carried the Dalriadic power to a hight from which it ever after declined, till Kenneth ascended the throne of Pikland. O'Flaherty tells us, that his brother Brandubius, as he christens him in his quaint Latin, was king of Leinster. In , we find the battle of Ouc against Aidan, mentioned in the Ulster Annals. In , the battle of Manan, in which he was victor: O'Flaherty says, the ile of Maun. From Adomnan we learn, that Aidan also conquered in the battle of Miathorum, or Micithorum. O'Flaherty believes this may be the battle of Lethrigh, or Leithredh, mentioned in the Annals of Ulster, as fought by Aidan in In this council Aidan also procured the remission of all homage due by the kings of Dalriada, to those of Ireland; which indeed, considering the case, it is natural to infer they at first paid.

If we credit Irish writers, the acts of this famous council are still extant. Beda adds, 'Nor from that time has any king of the Scots in Britain, dared to come to battle with the English to this day,' i.

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Nor indeed ever after till Kenneth was called to the Pikish throne. In , Aidan died at an advanced age, probably more oppressed with chagrin at his last severe check, than elated with former successes. Fordun says he died in Kintyre: and was buried at Kilcheran, where no king was buried before.